About Kingdom
Historical Overview


Historical Overview

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is located in the south-west Asia and occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the Red Sea to the West, the Persian Gulf, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Qatar to the East, Kuwait, Iraq and Jordan to the North, and Yemen and the Sultanate of Oman to the South.

A Historical Brief

The First Saudi State [1157 – 1233 AH / 1744 – 1818]

The first Saudi State was established by Imam Muhammad bin Saud, who took over Al-Dir'iya state in 1139 AH / 1727 after the death of its Prince Zaid bin Markhan bin Watban, and later; it became a starting center of the establishment of the first Saudi state.
In Jumada II 1233 AH / April 1818, Ibrahim Pasha besieged Al-Dir'iya, and defeated the Saudi forces after many battles, and Imam Abdullah bin Saud surrendered on the 8th of Dhu al-Qi'dah 1233 AH / 1818. This ended the first Saudi state, which extended its influence to most parts of the Arabian Peninsula.

The Second Saudi State [1240 – 1309 AH / 1824 – 1891]

In the year 1238 AH / 1822, Prince Turki bin Abdullah re-established the Saudi state, and announced Riyadh to be its capital, where he began his ruling in 1240 AH / 1824 after the Egyptian Ottoman garrison in Riyadh surrendered to him.

In Safar 1309 AH / September 1891, Abdullah bin Rasheed defeated the army of Imam Abdul Rahman bin Faisal and killed a number of his men. Bin Rasheed continued advancing to Riyadh and ordered the demolition of its walls, and the two castles of its rulers, the old and the new one; thus ending the era of the Second Saudi State.


The Third Saudi State

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

On the 5th of Shawwal 1319 AH / 15th of January 1902, King Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al Saud, the founder, managed to re-conquer Riyadh and to restore the reign of Al-Saud. 

On the 17th of Jumada I 1351 AH / 19th of September 1932, the founder announced the unification of the country and named it the ‘Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’, starting from Thursday, the 21st of Jumada I 1351 AH / 23rd of September 1932 (the first day of Libra). With this announcement, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was established and has since, become a great nation with a valuable mission, remarkable achievements, and a strong regional and international status. After that, the first day of Libra, corresponding to September 23rd, was declared as the National Day of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.​

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