The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is located in the
south-west Asia and occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula. It is
bordered by the Red Sea to the West, the Persian Gulf, Bahrain, United Arab
Emirates and Qatar to the East, Kuwait, Iraq and Jordan to the North, and Yemen
and the Sultanate of Oman to the South.
A Historical Brief
The First Saudi State [1157 – 1233 AH / 1744 – 1818]
The first Saudi State was established by Imam
Muhammad bin Saud, who took over Al-Dir'iya state in 1139 AH / 1727 after the
death of its Prince Zaid bin Markhan bin Watban, and later; it became a
starting center of the establishment of the first Saudi state.
In Jumada II 1233 AH / April 1818, Ibrahim Pasha besieged Al-Dir'iya, and
defeated the Saudi forces after many battles, and Imam Abdullah bin Saud
surrendered on the 8th of Dhu al-Qi'dah 1233 AH / 1818. This ended the first
Saudi state, which extended its influence to most parts of the Arabian
The Second Saudi State [1240 – 1309 AH / 1824 – 1891]
In the year 1238 AH / 1822, Prince Turki bin
Abdullah re-established the Saudi state, and announced Riyadh to be its
capital, where he began his ruling in 1240 AH / 1824 after the Egyptian Ottoman
garrison in Riyadh surrendered to him.
In Safar 1309 AH / September 1891, Abdullah bin Rasheed defeated the army of
Imam Abdul Rahman bin Faisal and killed a number of his men. Bin
Rasheed continued advancing to Riyadh and ordered the demolition of its
walls, and the two castles of its rulers, the old and the new one; thus ending
the era of the Second Saudi State.
The Third Saudi State
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
On the 5th of Shawwal 1319 AH / 15th
of January 1902, King Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al Saud, the founder,
managed to re-conquer Riyadh and to restore the reign of Al-Saud.
On the 17th of Jumada I 1351 AH / 19th of September 1932,
the founder announced the unification of the country and named it the ‘Kingdom
of Saudi Arabia’, starting from Thursday, the 21st of Jumada I 1351
AH / 23rd of September 1932 (the first day of Libra). With this
announcement, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was established and has since, become
a great nation with a valuable mission, remarkable achievements, and a strong
regional and international status. After that, the first day of Libra,
corresponding to September 23rd, was declared as the National Day of
the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.